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Brock Biology 14th Edition – Solution Manual

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Publisher : PEARSON
ISBN-10 : 0321897390
ISBN-13 : 978-0321897398

Original price was: $55.00.Current price is: $35.00.

SKU:888000010049

Brock Biology 14th Edition – Solution Manual

Table of Contents
INSTRUCTOR’S MANUAL
CHAPTER 1
Microorganisms and Microbiology
1
CHAPTER 2
Microbial Cell Structure
and Function
10
CHAPTER 3
Microbial
Metabolism
26
CHAPTER 4
Molecular Microbiology
39
CHAPTER 5
Microbial Growth and Growth Control
51
CHAPTER 6
Microbial Genomics
62
CHAPTER 7
Metabolic Regulation
73
CHAPTER 8
Viruses and Virology
83
CHAPTER 9
Viral Genomes and Diversity
91
CHAPTER 10
Genetics of
Bacteria
and
Archaea
102
CHAPTER 11
Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
111
CHAPTER 12
Microbial Evolution and Systematics
124
CHAPTER 13
Metabolic Diversity of Microorganisms
134
CHAPTER 14
Functional Diversity of
Bacteria
148
CHAPTER 15
Diversity of
Bacteria
159
CHAPTER 16
Diversity of
Archaea
168
CHAPTER 17
Diversity of Eukaryotic Microorganisms
175
CHAPTER 18
Methods in Microbial Ecology
182
CHAPTER 19
Microbial Ecosystems
190
CHAPTER 20
Nutrient Cycles
198
CHAPTER 21
Microbiology of the Built Environment
204
CHAPTER 22
Microbial Symbioses
210
CHAPTER 23
Microbial Interactions with Humans
219
iii
CHAPTER 24
Immunity and Host Defense
226
CHAPTER 25
Immune Mechanisms
232
CHAPTER 26
Molecular Immunology
238
CHAPTER 27
Diagnostic Microbiology
244
CHAPTER 28
Epidemiology
254
CHAPTER 29
Person-to-Person Bacterial and Viral Diseases
262
CHAPTER 30
Vectorborne and Soilborne Bacterial and Viral Diseases
274
CHAPTER 31
Water and Food as Vehicles of Bacterial Diseases
280
CHAPTER 32
Eukaryotic Pathogens: Fungal and Parasitic Diseases
290
iv
TABLE OF
CONTENTS

Microorganisms and Microbiology

Summary

Chapter 1 introduces the study of microbiology for students, most of whom will have had
little or no exposure to the subject. Consequently, you have a good opportunity to provide
an overview of microbiology that demonstrates the important roles microorganisms play in
human activities and in the ecology of the entire biosphere. The ability of microorganisms
to exist independently in nature as free-living cells (Figure 1.1) confers enormous adaptive
advantages over cells of macroorganisms, which are incapable of an independent existence.

1.1 | What Is Microbiology About and Why Is It Important?

Describe to students ways in which microbiology serves as both a basic and applied
biological science. From a basic perspective, the study of microorganisms has been the primary means by which the fundamental genetic and biochemical properties of living cells have been revealed. From an applied perspective, microorganisms directly affect the quality of human life in both detrimental and beneficial ways. Although microorganisms are the causative agents of some of the most important human, animal, and plant diseases, they are also used for the industrial production of antibiotics, pharmaceuticals, and foods. Microorganisms are also increasingly being used for beneficial purposes as diverse as bioremediation of polluted sites, gene therapies for genetic diseases, and the production of biofuels. Microbiology is therefore a science of far-reaching scope, with applications that affect the quality of human life in a variety of ways.

You should also emphasize to students the importance of microorganisms in the emergence and maintenance of higher forms of life. From the production of molecular oxygen
(by cyanobacteria) to the biogeochemical cycling of key elements, such as carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur, microorganisms play a major role in sustaining all life on the planet. Point out in your course introduction that for all the reasons summarized in this section, microbiology is the foundation of all biological sciences.

1.2 | Structure and Activities of Microbial Cells

Because microorganisms generally exist as free-living cells, it is important to discuss the characteristics of cells in general. Emphasize that all cells exhibit a nonrandom organization with a semipermeable membrane boundary that encompasses an internal system that is not in equilibrium with its environment. Point out that prokaryotic cells (i.e., all Bacteria and
Archaea) do not contain membrane-bound, internal organelles as traditionally described for eukaryotic cells (the Eukarya; Figure 1.2). In particular, the organization of prokaryotic DNA as a nucleoid, an aggregated mass of genetic material within the cytoplasm, is in stark contrast to the compartmentalized, multichromosomal configuration typically found in eukaryotes. However, despite the structural and morphological similarities of Bacteria and Archaea, make sure the students are aware early on that these groups of microorganisms have quite
distinct evolutionary lineages and are, therefore, not closely related on a genetic level. This concept is discussed in more detail in Section 1.3.

The ability of cells to maintain a thermodynamic energy flow far from equilibrium
defines what we refer to as a living system. All living systems display some form of metabolism in which both energy-yielding (catabolic) and energy-consuming (anabolic) biochemical reactions are catalyzed simultaneously. These chemical transformations allow for biosyn-thesis of new cell structures and, ultimately, cell division (microbial growth). Figure 1.3 shows the characteristics that define cellular life, some of which are universal (e.g., metabolism and evolution) and some of which occur only in some cells (e.g., differentiation
and motility).

1.3 | Evolution and Diversity of Microbial Cells

Although Earth is believed to be about 4.6 billion years old, several lines of evidence indicate that the appearance of multicellular life did not occur until about 600 million years ago
(Figure 1.4). By contrast, microbial cells (single-celled prokaryotes) likely appeared between 3.8 and 3.9 billion years ago and therefore were the only inhabitants of the planet for about
80 percent of its history! The appearance of multicellular life was necessarily preceded by
the accumulation of significant amounts of molecular oxygen (O2) in the atmosphere, a phenomenon that resulted from the activity of cyanobacteria and the evolution of a chlorophyll molecule that could use H2O as electron donor (see Chapter 13). Develop this concept for students in some detail at an early stage in the course to provide proper historical perspective of important events in cellular evolution. You may wish to start with the evidence supporting the hypothesis that the first self-replicating “entities” may have been RNA molecules, and the incorporation of these entities within lipid membranes may have represented the first cell type(s). This topic will be more thoroughly discussed in Chapter 12.

  • Discuss with your students some of the events that led to “higher” forms of life. The evolution of anaerobic phototrophic metabolisms likely began within 500 million years after the appearance of the first cells, followed nearly a billion years later by the evolution of cyano-
    bacteria from these early phototrophs (Figure 1.5), thus starting the slow process of oxygenating the atmosphere and the evolutionary path to multicellularity.
  • Also discuss the methods now routinely used in the development and refinement of the phylogenetic tree of life (Figure 1.6a). Introduce to your students the enormous impact
    ribosomal RNA gene sequencing has had on our understanding of microbial diversity and on the classification of living organisms into three distinct domains (Figure 1.6b).

1.4 | Microorganisms and Their Environments

The traditional approach to teaching students about microorganisms is from a pure culture perspective (e.g., a bacterial species and its effect on a host). It is more appropriate to introduce microorganisms as populations of cells occupying a particular habitat in which communities of different populations interact in complex ways. These interactions affect both the
habitat and its inhabitants, and they have a profound impact on the larger, multicellular inhabitants of an ecosystem. In fact, the very existence of multicellular life depends upon the nutrient cycling activities of microorganisms. Point out to students that pure cultures of microorganisms almost never occur in nature. Many students may have more interest in ecology than in what appears to them a more abstract area, such as microbiology. Therefore, stress the fact that the biochemical conversions and molecular interactions of microorganisms significantly control the balance and community structure of all living organisms in an ecosystem.

Students will likely be unaware of the abundance and ubiquitous nature of microbial life. Microorganisms can be found in even the most inhospitable environments by human standards, and students are often amazed at the extremes in which microorganisms can thrive (Table 1.1). Point out the fact that the total amount of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in microbial cells exceeds that in all plant and animal biomass. Microbial cells represent the
major reservoirs of life’s essential nutrients.

In this connection, prokaryotes comprise the major portion of Earth’s total biomass.
Most of this biomass consists of marine and terrestrial subsurface microbial populations
(Table 1.2). These communities contain a reservoir of genetic diversity that is largely unexplored and that could benefit humankind in as yet unknown ways. The effect of microorga-nisms on animals, plants, and global ecosystems is a topic interwoven throughout a number of chapters in this text. These concepts will come as a surprise for most students—who gene-rally consider microorganisms “simple,” insignificant creatures that only cause disease—and will set the stage for more detailed study in future chapters.

1.5 | The Impact of Microorganisms on Humans

Students probably understand the importance of microorganisms as agents of infectious
disease, and indeed, this has been a driving force in the development of microbiology as a distinct scientific discipline. The effects of microorganisms upon human affairs have been remarkable, particularly when one compares the foremost causes of death in the United States at the beginning of the twentieth century (before the widespread use of antibiotics and vaccines) with the major causes of death in this century (Figure 1.8). While the deleterious
effects of pathogenic bacteria to human wellness should be discussed here, it is important to also stress the key beneficial roles microorganisms play in agriculture (Figure 1.9), in human digestive health (Figure 1.10), in the food and beverage industries (Figure 1.11), and in the growing fields of biotechnology and alternative and renewable energy (Figure 1.12). With this discussion, students should become aware of the tremendous influence of microorganisms in human society.

The genomes of microorganisms hold incredible potential for the production of commercial products. The traditional methods of employing microorganisms for human use (e.g., fermentation) have evolved into what students now recognize as “biotech”—the biotechno-logy industry. The industry arose from the development by microbiologists of tools for genetically manipulating the genome of a bacterial cell to produce a desired product. An excellent example is the production of human insulin by Escherichia coli, an innovation that made the treatment of diabetes affordable for people from all economic backgrounds.

In addition to producing a product directly, bacterial cells can be used as a vehicle to
introduce specific genes into the genomes of other organisms for commercial production of
a desired product. For example, genetic engineering of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a plant
pathogen that naturally transfers DNA directly into plant cells upon infection, has led to
the use of plants for the production of human antibodies with potential anticancer or antiviral properties.

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